A set of thirty national pool hybrids along with six checks were evaluated during Rabi 2016-17 at Seed Breeding Farm, JNKVV, Jabalpur to study the genetic variability and association analyses for fifteen traits. Wide range of variation for all the traits was observed, indicating the presence of adequate genetic variability in the material. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was observed for harvest index and grain yield/plant, while moderate for ear weight, number of ears/plant, number of tillers/plant, peduncle length, 1000 grain weight, biological yield/plant and number of spikelets/ear. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was exhibited by harvest index, grain yield/plant, number of ears/plant, number of tillers/plant, peduncle length, ear weight, 1000 grain weight, biological yield/plant, number of spikelets/spike and canopy temperature. Grain yield/plant revealed significant positive association with ear weight, number of ears/plant, number of spikelets/spike, harvest index and 1000 grain weight. Harvest index imposed highest direct positive effect on grain yield/plant, followed by biological yield/plant, days to heading and plant height. Hybrids PHW 16-6, PHW 16-29, PHW 16-1, PHW 16-26 and PHW 16-10 were found superior over the best check HD 2967 on the basis of grain yield/plant. The result of present study could be exploited in planning and execution of future breeding programme in hybrid wheat.
A field experiment was conducted during 2015-2016 to find out the effect of agronomic modifications for wheat production in organic farming at Khalsa College Amritsar. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of T1 (Flat planting of wheat i.e. control), T2 (Bed planting of wheat), T3 (T2+intercropping gram in center), T4 (T2+intercropping lentil in center), T5 (Paired row of wheat and gram on bed), T6 (Paired row of wheat and lentil on bed), T7 (T5+straw mulching) and T8 (T6+straw mulching). Agronomic modifications related to planting methods, intercropping and mulching significantly affected the plant height, yield attributes, and productivity of wheat crop. Thus, it can be concluded that the agronomic modifications (intercropping and mulching) are an advantageous manipulation for organic farming, especially for staple crops like wheat. The per cent increase in grain yield due to different treatments over control (T1) was 23.59, 22.18, 21.14, 20.05, 19.72, 19.37, 10.92 in trend T7>T8>T3>T4>T5>T6>T2 respectively.
Baby corn is a one group of the specialty maize and now very popular in India too for high nutritional and marketable values. It is mainly grown Kharif season but its sensitivity of high moisture affects its production. Therefore, the present study was carried out in Kharif season-2019 to optimize the establishment method and its nutrient management. The experimental results indicated that ridge planting with application of 75%RDF+25%VC gave significantly higher plant stand, plant height, dry matter accumulation, LAI, CGR, RGR, chlorophyll content, baby corn yield and green fodder yield, however it was very close to 100% RDF. Therefore, the baby corn may be planting on ridges with application of 75%RDF+25%VC for higher baby corn and quality green fodder in Tarai region of Uttarakhand.
Calocybe indica strain CI-3 was investigated for mycelial growth on solid as well as on liquid medium. Three media namely Complete Yeast extract Medium (CYM), Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Wheat Extract Agar medium (WEA) were supplemented with three growth regulators Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and Gibberellic acid (GA) @ 10, 25 and 50 ppm each separately. The maximum colony diameter (mm) and growth rate (mm/day) was observed on WEA medium supplemented with IAA (10 ppm) on 5th and 7th day, IBA (10 ppm) on 5th day, IBA (25 ppm) on 7th day, GA (50 ppm) on 7th day and CYM supplemented with GA (50 ppm) on 5th and 7th day. The biomass growth was maximum in broth supplemented with GA for all the media with maximum (24.2 g/L) in complete yeast extract broth.
Over the last few years rapid changes are seen in the field of technological and social environment that contributed to changes in the working environment and the nature of work. Both of them play an important role on the health and well-being of working people. In this scenario, psychosocial risks and work stress become an emerging issue at banking sector where work load and work demand is very high. Work-related psychosocial risks emerge from the design, content, and management of work as well as its social context that can have a hazardous influence on employee’s health and leads to stress at work. Thus the present study was planned to evaluate the psychosocial factors at work and stress among bank employees. The study was carried out purposively in selected Public Sector Banks (PNB, SBI, UNION) of Pantnagar and Rudrapur in Udham Singh Nagar District. A total of 90 employees were selected for study out of which 23 were female and 67 were male employees. A well standardized Psychosocial factor based questionnaire was adopted for assessing the psychosocial risk among employees, along with that Cohen Perceived Stress scale was also adopted for assessing work stress among them. The results shows that job design or job structure was the main reason for stress among bank employees, factors like work overload, communication gap among higher authority and colleagues, conflict and comfort level with supervisor increased stress among bank employees. They were also experienced high work load, physical and mental burden during task, long working hours, repetitive task, deadlines, time pressure and shortage of staff. It leads to mental stress among employees which affects their performance.
Stress refers to the perceived or actual threat on physical and/or psychological homeostasis of the human body. Disrupted homeostasis elicits the so called "stress response"
, meaning the activation of central and peripheral neuroendocrine mechanisms responsible for various adaptive responses and behaviors. PSS was originally developed as a 14-item scale that assess the perception of stressful experiences by asking the respondent to rate the frequency of his/her feelings and thoughts related to events and situations that occurred over the previous month. The purpose of this study was to measure the level of perceived stress among the students of Post Graduation. The study used a convenience sample of female and male college students. For taking the data, a scale for measuring the perceived stress level was adopted. PSS assess the perception of stressful experiences by asking the respondent to rate the frequency of his/her feelings and thoughts related to events and situations that occurred over the previous month. Majority of the respondents agreed that they often perceived stress because of something that happened unexpectedly in the last month, they were unable to control the important things in their life, they were not confident enough to handle their personal problems or being unable to control irritations etc. Students often perceived stress when things were out of their control or they found it difficult to pile the things up because of uncontrollable situations.
Native chicken rearing is gaining momentum among the poultry industry. But still there is a challenge of antibiotic residues in meat and more use of Biologicals, for which Herbo Chicken rearing might be the solution. Instead of use of Biologicals and antibiotics, native Chicken are fed with herbs like Justicia adhatoda, Osmium basilicum, Piper betle, Plectranthus ambonicus, Solanum trilobatum, Sesbania sp., Moringa oleifera, Delonix elata, Carica papaya, Azadirachta indica, Murraya koeniggi, Acalypha indica, Andrographis paniculata, and Achyranthus aspera based on the indigenous knowledge on ethnovetrinary medicine. This study was conducted to assess the difference in Haemlotological parameters of Herbo Chicken over The vaccinated Native Chicken flocks in Erode district of Tamil Nadu. Blood samples from 10 birds of 1.5 years of age each from regularly vaccinated native chicken flock and native chicken reared without vaccination and antibiotics in Sree Sakthi Native Chicken Farms, Erode were collected for this study. The haematological Parameters like Haemoglobin content, PCV, TEC and DLC were estimated using the standard protocol. The results obtained were analysed by conventional analysis in the form of averages and statistical analysis between both the groups were capmared by unpaired student‘t’ test. The results revealed that there was a statistically significant variation at 5% level (p<0.05) in Haemoglobin Content and PCV of Herbochicken with that of vaccinated Native Chickens. Statistically there was no significant (p>0.05) variation between Herbo Chicken and normal vaccinated flocks among other blood parameters like number of RBCs, Neutrophils, lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils. This study found significantly increasing the Haemoglobin content and Packed Cell Volume in the herbo chicken and there is no reported disease outbreak in the farm as per farm records. A further study on factors responsible for disease resistance may be recommended.
The standard data available on 166 Sahiwal cattle, distributed over a period of 30 years from 1987 to 2016, and on crossbred cattle distributed over a period of 40 years from 1977 to 2016,were utilized to know the inheritance pattern of the traits viz. Age at first calving(AFC),First lactation milk yield (FL305DMY),First lactation length (FLL) and First lactation peak yield (FLPY).The heritability estimates for AFC,FL305DMY,FLL and FLPY were observed as 0.452±0.152, 0.378±0.128, 0.277±0.101 and 0.447±0.146,respectively in case of Sahiwal cattle. The corresponding values in case of crossbreds were estimated as 0.209±0.061, 0.346±0.082, 0.225±0.063 and 0.262±0.069.The AFC trait was positively correlated with the FLL and FLPY traits at genetic level (rg) and negatively correlated with FL305DMY trait in Sahiwal cattle. The phenotypic correlation (rp) of AFC with FL305DMY, FLL and FLPY were positive in magnitude in case of Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. The rg and rpvalues for FL305DMY trait with FLL and FLPY were positively correlated in Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. The FLL trait was found to be positively correlated at genetic and phenotypic levels with FLPY traits in both the Sahiwal and crossbred cattle.
The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different supplements on meat composition and processing losses in Ven Cobb400 broilers. Two hundred and fifty two chicks were divided into seven groups. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1; organic mineral mixture (Organomin forte), T2; organic mineral mixture (Vannamin), T3; probiotics (Microguard), T4; enzyme (Brozyme -XPR) and probiotics, T5; emulsifier (Lipigon) were provided through the feed. In the T group, 3 percent less energy was given through feed from 1st to 6th weeks of age, respectively. There were non-significant differences (in the moisture, ether extract and total ash content) among different treatments in the thigh and breast meat in comparison to control. There was a significant difference (in crude protein content) among different treatments in the thigh and breast meat in comparison to control. The processing losses were statistically significant amongst different treatments. The results indicated that different supplements and their combination can be recommended to increase crude protein levels and to produce designer broilers meat.
The present study was conducted utilizing data available on 166 Sahiwal cattle and 799 cattle belonging to Jersey, Holstein Friesian, or Red Dane inheritance as exotic breed in different combinations with Sahiwal as native breed .The exotic inheritance level for different crossbred cattle varied from 50% to 75% level. The local breed used was Sahiwal. These data were utilized to know the average values for different fortnightly test day yields from first fortnightly test day milk yield (FTDY-1) to twenty one fortnightly test day yield (FTDY-21).The means of these test day milk yields (FTDY-1 to FTDY-21)in kg in case of Sahiwal cattle were found as 4.29 ±0 .5, 5.34±0.7, 7.71 ± 0.6, 7.63±0.8, 7.45 ± 0.10, 7.11± 0.9, 7.08 ± 0.10, 6.87± 0.75, 6.34 ± 0.08,
6.12± 0.64, 6.34± 0.12 , 5.96 ± 0.54, 5.65 ±0.12, 5.28± 0.10, 4.74 ±0.10, 4.24 ± 0.11, 3.49 ± 0.84, 3.28 ± 0.07, 2.93 ± 0 .47, 2.73 ±0.03 and 2.50 ± 0.03,respectively.The corresponding figures in case of crossbred cattle were observed as 4.48±0.3, 5.6±0.2 , 9.53±0.48 , 9.35±0.67, 8.7±0.45, 8.6±0.6 , 8.35±0.08, 7.83±0.3 , 7.6±0.7 , 7.11±0.08, 6.56±0.45 , 6.08±0.32 , 5.71±0.8 , 5.27±0.21 , 5.26±0.18, 4.98±0.78 , 5.13±0.2 , 4.51±0.74 , 5.03±0.11 , 4.75±0.02 and 4.49±0.81.The fortnightly yields did not vary according to different periods and seasons in Sahiwal and crossbred cattle.
The introduction of modified theoretical velocity (axle rpm) and actual velocity measurement devices made the measurement of wheel slip more precise. The design of the axle rpm and actual velocity measurement device was accurate and efficient. The proximity sensor sends pulses when the projections are at the closest distance to the sensor. Axle rpm and actual velocity are calculated using Matlab software. The smart monitoring and performing mathematical calculations in Catman and Matlab software make the data handling easier and online graphical display enables the observer with an insight into the relation of each and every parameter with one another. The final output of the experiment is obtained in an excel sheet directly. The performance of the developed device was compared with the manual method of measurement of wheel slip. For validation of the slip sensing device, the wheel slip was measured by both methods at normal loads 7.85 kN with 131 kPa, 8.83 kN and 96.6 kPa and 10.3 kN with 82.8 kPa tyre inflation pressures at varying pulls condition upto 20% slip. No significant difference in measuring wheel slip was found at 5% level of significance.
The study conducted for observing effect of long duration utilization effect of aqueous ethanol on fuel consumption, emission, crank case oil quality and engine cleanliness on petrol start kerosene run type small SI engine coupled with an alternator running on denatured ethanol 190°proof in place of kerosene. The result indicated no significant deposition of foreign matter on carburetor component, deterioration in the crank case oil quality and shoot formation within the recommended change period of 100 hours. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was found less, whereas hydrocarbon (HC) found more than petrol run SI engines. The operation of engine on denatured 190° proof ethanol was found satisfactory.
Maize production is the second major activity adopted by the farmer because of its several advantages on different fields. Concerning the maize production a maize sheller was developed .The sheller is evaluated for three different varieties of maize Shresta NHM 731, Angad 1217 and NK30 and each variety is divided into two categories based on the length of maize cob i.e., Category A (maize length less than 12 cm) and category B (maize length greater than 12 cm).The developed sheller has total weight 79.5 kg and the unit cost of the machine is Rs 17150/. The performance of manual plucking and hand held shelling (hexagonal hand held sheller) is also evaluated for comparison. The output capacity of developed sheller was evaluated at three different feedings and
2.5 kg maize feeding was found highest among all the feeding. The shelling efficiency and output capacity of variety Angad 1217 Category A were found maximum 99.45% and 174.33 kg/h respectively. Percentage of unshelled grain on maize sheller was found on variety Shresta NHM 731 category A was highest 1.62. The highest cleaning efficiency was found on variety NK30 category B 99.20 percent. The operational cost of developed sheller is 44.771 Rs/h. The cost required to shell 1 kg of maize cob was found Rs 0.226. The total operational cost of the hand shelling (manual plucking) and hand held sheller was found 37.5 Rs/ h. shelling of 1 kg of maize into maize grain required 3.05 Rs/kg in case of manual plucking and 1.37 Rs/kg in case of hand held sheller.
A study was undertaken to develop a draft prediction model for sweep and reversible type tyne in vertisol. Draft requirements of these tillage tools were measured in soil bin at four levels of depth and four levels of speed of operation in three different soil compaction levels at average soil moisture content of 14-16% (db). Experimental design was based on the factorial RBD. An appropriate ANOVA model was selected for analysis of variance using the SAS statistical software package. All the variables under study significantly affected draft (P < 0.001). The draft of tillage tools increased with cone index, depth and speed of operation. The effect of depth was found to be more significant on the draft. Rate of increase of draft with respect to depth was higher as compared to that with respect to speed of operation and cone index for all the tools tested. Draft values predicted by ASABE model were compared with those obtained from soil bin tests at three compaction levels separately. A simple equation similar to the ASABE model incorporating cone index was developed using stepwise regression analyses to model the draft of tillage implements for the range of soil and operating condition tested. The high value of R2 of the model (0.93 and 0.96) for the draft data obtained from soil bin tests indicated that the experimental data fit the regression very well.