A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Dairy Farm, Nagla, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (India) during Kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of tillage, fertilizer placement and nitrogen levels on green foliage, brix, sucrose, juice and ethanol production of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Mollisols of Uttarakhand. The experimental results revealed that the highest growth attributes, fodder yield, brix%, sugar%, juice and ethanol yield were recorded under subsoiling-cum-differential rate placement of fertilizer. The subsoiling-cum-differential rate placement produced 16.7, 26.7 and 32.7% higher green fodder and 19.2, 33.4 and 42.2% higher dry fodder yield than conventional tillage, subsoiling and subsoiling-cum-deep placement, respectively. Similarly, the brix%, sucrose%, juice and ethanol yield were recorded 21.9, 13.2, 31.2 and 45.0% higher under subsoiling-cum-differential rate placement than conventional tillage, respectively. The nitrogen levels also influenced the quality attributes of sweet sorghum with 8.1, 21.3, 36.4 and 74.0% higher brix%, sucrose%, juice and ethanol yield, respectively under 120 kg N/ha than control, however the green and dry fodder yield increased significantly up to 80 kg N/ha. It is therefore concluded that the fertilizer should be placed at differential depth (20cm and 50cm) coupled with 80 kg N/ha for higher green foliage as well as brix, sucrose, juice and ethanol production of sweet sorghum in Mollisols of Uttrakhand and may be replicated in similar agro-climatic zones of India.
This study was carried out to assess the status and distribution of soil available micronutrients along a hill slope in Ekpoma and to determine the physical and chemical properties of the soils. Soil samples were obtained from upper, middle and lower slope in the land scape within Ambrose Alli University main campus environment at depth intervals of 0-15cm and 15-30cm. Soil samples were collected and analysed for some micronutrients using standard laboratory methods. The results showed that chlorine increased in depths for all the locations in the landscape. Iron increased with increase in depth in all the locations. In the case of Zinc, the content in the soils in all three locations decreased with increase in depths. Copper was irregular in the three locations in the landscape. The result also shows that Nickel is irregular in the research area. Manganese was irregular in the three locations. Cadmium was same for both depths at the upper slope but absent at the middle and bottom of the landscape. Boron and Chromium were irregular in the three locations of the landscape. Micronutrients were available and well distributed in the landscape except for cadmium which was completely absent in the middle and lower slopes.
A field experiment was conducted at the N.E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand during kharif-2016 and 2017 seasons, to study the response of foliar nutrition on soybean crop. The treatments included T-1 Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF)20:60:40, N:P2O5: K2O + water spray at pod initiation, T-2 RDF + Urea 2% spray at pod initiation, T-3 RDF + Di Ammonium Phosphate 2% spray at pod initiation, T-4 RDF + Muriate of Potash 0.5% at pod initiation, T-5 RDF + 19:19:19 (N,P2O5, K2O) 2% spray at pod initiation, T-6 RDF + sodium molybdate 0.5% spray at pod initiation, T-7 RDF + borax 0.5% spray at pod initiation, T-8 RDF + chelated zinc 0.5% spray at pod initiation and T-9 RDF (20:60:40, N, P2O5, K2O) only. Foliar application of nutrients was done at pod initiation stage and RDF was applied as basal at the time of sowing. Application of RDF + 19:19:19 (N,P2O5, K2O) 2% spray at pod initiation stage in treatment T-5 resulted in higher yield attributing characters viz. , branches per plant and pods per plant during both the years. The highest seed and haulm yield was also recorded in the treatment T-5 (RDF + 19:19:19 (N, P2O5, K2O) 2% spray at pod initiation. The per cent increase in seed yield due to treatment T-5 was 26.7 and 13.9 per cent over RDF alone during 2016 and 2017 respectively. The highest harvest index of 28.85 and 27.57 was also recorded in the treatment T-5 (RDF+ 19:19:19, 2% spray at pod initiation) during 2016 and 2017, respectively.
This study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria to evaluate the soils for their suitability for the cultivation of two arable crops (pineapple and plantain). The area was gridded using the rigid grid method of detailed soil survey, measuring 100 m x 100 m (1 ha) per auger boring point. Two mapping units were identified and delineated based on textural class, drainage, topography and land use types. A soil profile was dug in each of the mapping unit and described appropriate. Soil samples were collected from identified genetic horizons and analyzed for morphological, physical and chemical properties of the soil. The results indicated that, under moist condition, soil in mapping unit 1 (pedon1) had very dark grayish brown (10YR3/2) colour at surface level and strong brown (7.5Y4/5) at subsurface level; while in mapping unit 2 (pedon 2), soil colour was strong brown (7.5YR5/6) at both surface and subsurface level. Textural class in pedon 1 was sandy loam at the Ap1- horizon, sandy clay loam at the Bt2 – horizon; while in pedon 2, soil textural class was loamy sand at the Ap – horizon and sandy clay loam at the Bt2 – horizon with sub-angular blocky to blocky structures in both pedons. Sand particles was dominant mineral size fraction in the soil in both pedons (832 g/kg and 852 g/kg).Silt particles had the least particle size distribution (26 and 26 – 46 g/kg) respectively. CEC ranged from 19.16 cmol/kg to 53.60 cmol/kg in pedon 1 and 12.33 cmol/kg to 18.33 cmol/kg in pedon 2. The pH of the soils were acidic to moderately acidic (4.59 to 5.53), organic carbon and total nitrogen were low, ranging from 0.27g/kg to 0.98 g/kg and 0.01 g/kg to 0.14 g/kg. Available phosphorus ranged from 1.75 mg/kg to 48.59 mg/kg and exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg and K) ranged from low to moderate, while the base saturation of the soil were generally high ranging from 75% to 94.69 %. The result on the suitability scores using the Non-parametric methods showed that the soil of the study area were currently not suitable (N) for pineapple and plantain cultivation on the basis of fertility; that is, low CEC and N for pineapple and low CEC and alkalinity for plantain cultivation. It is therefore, imperative to embark on good fertility management practice to boost the fertility status of the soil for sustainable arable crop production.
This study was conducted in the rain forest zone of Edo state, Nigeria to evaluate the suitability of some soils for avocado pear and pineapple cultivation. The methodology involved a rigid grid soil survey at a detailed scale. Four mapping units were delineated and suitable guidelines specific for each crop were used in establishing suitability of the land for avocado pear and pineapple. The result revealed that by limitation method, on potential basis, 110.98 ha (Inceptisols and Ultisols) which amounts to 86.64% of the study area was moderately suitable (S2) while 17.13 ha (Entisols) which amounts to 13.37% of the study area was marginally suitable for avocado pear and pineapple. However, by parametric method, 110.98 ha (Inceptisols and Ultisols) covering 86.64% of the study area was highly suitable (S1) while 17.13 ha (Entisols) representing to 13.37% of the study area was only marginally suitable for avocado pear and pineapple production. Thus, the limitation method should be preferred for land suitability evaluation as it captures the true state of land characteristics in the study area.
The study on the population of different predatory coccinellid beetles was carried out in three locations of Pantnagar. The predatory beetles were surveyed periodically from November, 2020 to February, 2021. A total of 10 species of predatory coccinellid beetles were observed from different crops of the region. Out of these recorded coccinellids, 9 species viz., Anegleis cardoni (Weise), Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius), Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus), Coccinella transversalis (Fabricius), Harmonia dimidita (Fabricius), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), Micraspis univittata (Hope), Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) and Harmonia variegate (Fabricius) were identified under subfamily Coccinellinae, while the one species i.e., Brumoides suturalis (Fab.) belonged to subfamily Chilocorinae. Different field crops (Wheat, Rice, Chickpea, Mustard, Pigeon pea and Cotton), vegetable crops (Potato, Brinjal and Cabbage) and floricultural crops (Rose and Chrysanthemum) were observed during the period for occurrence of coccinellid beetles. Among all the crops, a maximum of six species of coccinellids were recorded in chrysanthemum crop followed by wheat (5 spp.), brinjal, potato, mustard (4 spp. respectively), pigeon pea, cotton (3 sps. respectively), chickpea, rose, cabbage (2 sps. respectively) and rice (1 sps.). Among all the species C. septempunctata, C. sexmaculata, and C. transversalis were found in all the cropping seasons of Pantnagar. Hence, due to their wide diversity, these predatory beetles could be utilized in an effective IPM module for the management of sucking pests in different crops.
Spondias pinnata (family: Anacardiaceae), known as Indian hog-plum, is a species of popular minor fruit tree of Assam with edible sour fruits among the underutilized fruit crops. It is medicinally important and the fruit is a valuable source of vitamin C. The tree is severely damaged by a coleopteran leaf feeder known as Podontia quatuordecimpunctata (family: Chrysomelidae). The pest is widely distributed in Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Sikkim and Uttar Pradesh. The pest was appeared in May, 2019 as a serious defoliator of Spondias pinnata and first record in Southern part of Kamrup district of Assam. Mating took place 3-7 days of emergence and copulation took place in the early hours of morning. Eggs were laid in cluster of 20-50 and arranged in circular manner. Egg clusters were also noticed in non-host plant like Murraya koenigii but did not feed. Incubation period was 5-8 days and hatching took place in day and night. The newly hatched grub fed gregariously for 2-3 days. The grub retained its feces directly on the dorsum. The larval (grub) period was 12-16 days and had four instars. Pupation took place in soil. The adult beetle was 1.8-2.0 cm long. The pest appeared during onset of rainy season (May) with a peak in Jun/Jul and disappeared in Nov/Dec. The leaf defoliation was caused by the grub and adult beetle.
The present investigation was carried out to characterize the guava (Psidium guajava) germplasm at morphological level and to identify the promising F1 hybrid amongst 15 hybrids using morphological traits. Observations were recorded for different traits viz., leaf characters like length and width of leaf, length to width ratio, leaf area, shape of leaf, shape of leaf apex and base, colour of leaves during winter, lamina thickness, pubescence, number of leaves, young leaf anthocyanin colouration, texture of leaves, colour of upper and lower surface and plant characters like plant height, stem girth and colour of young stem during winter season. Results revealed that significant variations were present with reference to various morphological characteristics amongst the 25 genotypes. On the basis of morphological description, the germplasm Hissar Safeda × Sardar was quite different and superior. Considering shape of leaf, shape of leaf apex and base and leaf colour during winters, these leaf morphological characters were quite informative and useful in characterizing these genotypes, as some genotypes could easily be identified using a combination of these characters
Vigna vexillata, a wild species closely related to the cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), is used for its storage tuber like roots, protein-rich seed, forage and control of soil erosion. The stunted, chlorotic and wilted patches of V. vexillata were found at ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India. The soil and root samples were collected with standard procedure to observe for nematode infestation. The severe infestation of root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita was observed as roots of the infected plants were heavily galled with an average galling index of 4.3 (3.0-5.0). The soil population of J2 was also recorded well above the economic threshold level. The heavy root galling and presence of an extremely high population of J2 in soil (484-879 J2/ 200cc soil) indicates that M. incognita can be a potentially damaging pest to V. vexillata and can serve as a source of infestation to other hosts to be planted in same field. The present findings will awake the V. vexillata growers to consider growing V. vexillata under proper sanitation conditions. Soil samples from the proposed planting site should always be tested for the presence of nematode well before planting.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is major cereal crop consumed by approximately 2.5 billion of global population. However, the production is affected by many diseases. Among three rusts, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is the most crucial disease of wheat that causes yield loss. Repeated breakdown of resistance genes for leaf rust (Lr9, Lr18 and Lr28) led to the study of adult plant resistance and slow rust resistance gene which are considered as more long -lasting. Host resistance is the most economical way to manage wheat leaf and stripe rust. In present study164 exotic germplasms of bread wheat were screened for disease resistance against stripe and leaf rust under epiphytotic conditions and disease severity with Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) was analysed. All the fourteen accessions showing resistant to leaf rust in the field condition also gave lower AUDPC value. Therefore, cultivars having lower AUDPC values were acceptable for practical purposes. Present research provided the resistant wheat lines to the breeders to incorporate in their breeding programme against leaf rust.
The study was conducted to evaluate the soils of Khana Local Government Area of Rivers State, Southern Nigeria for the cultivation of okra and fluted pumpkin. Eight mapping units were identified and one profile pit each was dug in each of the mapping. The soil profiles were examined and described horizons by horizon and soil samples were collected from each of the identifiable pedological horizon. The result shows that four soil orders majorly Inceptisols/Cambisols, Entisols/Arenosols, Ultisols/Acrisols, and Alﬁsols/Lixisols, were identiﬁed in the study area. The result of the suitability class scores using the non para metric method for the eight pedons evaluated showed that the soils were marginally suitable (S3) for both okra and fluted pumpkin cultivation due to limitation in climate (rainfall) and fertility (low CEC) and soil physical characteristic (depth to water table) in both pedon 4 and 5. Thus, the soils of Khana Local Government LGA can be profitably put into okra and fluted pumpkin cultivation under proper fertility management system and time of planting.
COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the Indian agricultural system extensively. SAMETI (State Agricultural Management and Extension Training, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand) has adapted to the changed circumstances and has taken up the mandate of trainings in the online mode with very interesting and encouraging outcomes. The study has revealed that more subjects have been covered in online trainings as compared to offline training. Remoteness does not discourage people from availing online trainings on diverse subjects. Observations of extension professionals have put forth the pros and cons of both online and offline mode of trainings. The learning experience is that conducting trainings in HYBRID (both online and offline) mode will defenitely have better outcome.
The Farmer University confers specifically in the domain of agriculture research, training, demonstration, programmes, government policy and rural development. The Farmer Bank focuses in the improvement of agriculture credit, framework and policy for the rural community growth. The research, training, programmes, demonstration, farmer market and employment generations variables of Farmer University were collected from the global agricultural university. The agriculture credit, loan, and government schemes & benefits variables of Farmer University were collected from the global agricultural bank. Farmer University is single Domain institutions, serves research, demonstrations and programmes in the field of for technology enhancement and rural development and employment creations. The Farmer Bank is organized bank, will contribute in the finance, credit, agriculture schemes & benefits and training to the farmer. The university supports more student growth than farmer’s development. The proposed Farmers’ University emphasizes farmer-participatory education, research and extension activities with active involvement of scientists, farmers and agriculture graduates. The research and training programmes, demonstration etc. will be provided by employing agriculture graduates. The university will conduct scientific crop production and farm-centred activities for farmers’ growth. The farm linked activities and crop production would be clubbed with research for technology development. The Farmers’ University will function with farmers involvement. The proposed Farmers’ Bank is a specialized bank for farmers’ services. The Farmers’ Bank will assist to manage risks of Farmers associated with crop and livestock, initiate Risk Protection Insurance and guide farmers in government schemes and benefits to farmers. The Farmers University and Farmers’ Bank are available for farmers in Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Virginia, Princeton and Union ville countries. The university and bank may be established in the main district of the state. The Farmer University reforms Structural framework, research, Farm linked activities and extension activities, disseminates agriculture schemes & benefits in the rural community. The Farmers Bank constitutes agriculture framework, finance and policy for the farmer and rural development. The organizational institution creates employment and progress the agriculture activities, education and research.
The reformation ration shop transforms constitutional organization, documentation process, policy, governance of the body. The reformation of ration shop introduces ICT technology and training for combating human health and problems. The information of extension of the division, policy development, vigilance, training & programme, administration, assistance of disabled persons, vigilance and employment creation parameters were outlined for the weaker sections in India. The ration shop office is comphrensive organization of the ration shop, will create policy, function and regulations for the ration shop and below poverty line people. The ration shop office would establish with ration shop in the country. The Indian corporations (FCI, CWC, SWC) will supply food grains to ration shop godowns. The Indian corporations and ration shop godowns will provide food grains supply notifications to ration office. The ration office would verify the food grains of godowns, registering below poverty line people, registered BPL people to release certificate and smart card to below poverty line people. The ration shop consists of agriculture cell and vigilance cell are to monitor policies & funds, agriculture cell is to prepare programmes, execute programme, compute of records, resolving complain, conduct nutritional & technology training. The ration office will be regulated with ICT based system. It will mitigate below poverty line, malnutrition, generate employment, improve rural & urban growth, establish faith towards government and transform society of modern India
In hills it is generally observed that factors like rural remote locations, lack of basic facilities, lacking infrastructure, and less employment opportunities, etc have acted as a push factor for the dispersion of the rural population leading to the creation of vicious phenomenon of out-migration. Being a hilly district located at state of Uttarakhand, Almora is also touched by this vicious phenomenon. Almora is dominated by the rural masses and hence agriculture is the lifeline of its economy. This massive dislocation of the rural masses has in turn badly influenced the agricultural scenario of the district. The study is based upon the information collected by personally interviewing 50 migrants rural farm households. The technique of multiple regression was used to analyse the factors influencing the employment intensity of farm households. The results revealed that farm landholding, age of family head, livestock have positively influenced the employment intensity whereas size of the family and education level of head of the family have negatively influenced the employment intensity
Agri food market is very challenging in India and developing rapidly. Consumers have raised great interest to healthy and tasty diet with high nutritional compounds, confidence in food safety, environmental and animal welfare concern and also sustainability. This paper presents attitude and consumption pattern for agri food of consumers. Quantitative data is collected by survey method consisting of structured questions which are only targeted to Agri produces and consumers. Agri food market in India suffers from various challenges. These challenges are mainly due to poor supply chain practices. In the recent years Agri supply has raised the attention of many researchers. An efficient supply chain is the need of Agri market and this can add value to the delivery of final product. Inefficiency in the Agri supply chain network causes poor delivery of Agri product and this directly affect the attitude and behavior of consumer. This paper also focuses on constraints faced by consumer while purchasing Agri produce. This study aims to identify and rank a number of attributes, focusing on how their statistical significance across the consumers of fresh produce buying decisions. The study suggests that the farmers need to enhance the nutritive value of tomato by limiting the use of chemical and pesticides. The consumers have given more priority to the organic and healthy crop of tomato.
Checklist of fishes of Kole wetlands, a Ramsar site in Kerala is presented along with their scientific names, IUCN Red List status and endemism. Fifty three freshwater fish species were recorded from the Kole wetlands of Kerala comprising of twelve orders and nineteen families. Majority of the fishes were from order Cypriniformes and family Cyprinidae. As per IUCN Red list category, five fishes are vulnerable and one is in near threatened category list. Among the fifty three fishes, seven species of Kerala region and ten species of Western Ghats region are endemic to the respective places. Two endemic species of Kerala and two from Western Ghats are in threatened category.
Fish diversity of Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala was studied during the period from January 2018 to December 2020. Fishes comprised of 53 species belonging to 11 Orders, 19 Families and 39 genera were recorded during the study. Family Cyprinidae were the most dominant group represented by 25 species belonging to 19 genera, followed by Cichlidae (4 species) and Channidae and Nemachelidae (3 species each) respectively. According to IUCN status, one species (Mesonoemachelius herrei) were ‘critically endangered’ (CR), four were ‘Near Threatened’ (NT), one species was ‘Endangered’ (EN) and one species is listed as ‘Vulnerable’ (VU). Further, data on one species were listed as ‘Data deficient’ (DD), and six species was found to be exotic species. The results of the study were represented in the form of a checklist of the freshwater fish fauna of the Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary together with remarks on risks and conservation requirements.
Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an invisible infection of udder, mostly affecting milch animals. High milk yielding cattle are often more prone for SCM infection. When SCM infection remains untreated for long time it eventually ends up into chronic mastitis which causes huge fall in milk production. As SCM infection has many predisposing factors, in this present study breed wise prevalence of SCM was studied. On the basis of the results it was observed that crossbred cattle were found more affected in comparison to other cattle breeds.
In this study SARS-CoV-2 genome encoding for spike protein of Delta lineage circulating upto December 2022 in India were downloaded from NCBI and GISAID and aligned against the reference sequence MN908947.3. The mutational profiles of these sequences were estimated using online software available. The most frequent non-synonymous mutational events were D614G, L452R, T478K, P681R, D950N, T19R, G142D, A222V, T95I and V1061V
In this study 423 SARS-CoV-2 genome encoding for spike protein of Delta lineage circulating upto December 2022 in India were downloaded from NCBI and GISAID and aligned against the reference sequence MN908947.3. Total 192 mutations were found to be prevalent in the spike protein of Delta variants circulating in India out of which 125 were non-synonymous mutations and 67 were synonymous mutations. The non-synonymous mutations were further subjected for analysis to analyse the effect of mutation on the functionality of the protein. Out of the total 125 non-synonymous mutations, nine were found to have deleterious effect on the functionality of spike protein. Remaining 116 mutations were found to have neutral effect on functionality of spike protein. The selection pressure imparted by the host was analysed using Data monkey sever. The selective pressure analysis revealed that site numbers 142, 152 and 222 of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variants were evolving under positive selection pressure.
Antimicrobial resistances (AMR) of bacteria are the burning issues globally which are closely related to public health and wealth. Since Fleming’s great discovery of Penicillin to till now antibiotics of clinical therapy is a great advance in human and animal medicine. Due to haphazard and unregulated utilization of antibiotics in the field of poultry, dairy farming, agriculture, fish farming and clinical therapies results into development of antibiotic resistome. The overall population and high infection load led to higher total consumption. Hence, India is still the largest consumer of antibiotics for human health. WHO, FAO and OIE have agreed that antibiotic resistance-“One Health problem” that involved humans, animals and the environment. “One Health approach” is needed to meet the challenges of the rapidly increasing supply and demand of our global food system and to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment. In Uttarakhand, more investigations are needed for searching the alternate source to antibiotics as well as containing the unregulated use of antibiotics in human, animal and agriculture. NAP-AMR has been formulated in our country but only one state i.e., Kerala has adopted it. There is necessary that all states and union territories must adopt and execute National Action Plan on AMR for the wellbeing of mankind.
An increase in outdoor activities and habits of humans frequently result in more exposure to solar radiation which consist of different electromagnetic radiations namely ultraviolet radiation (UVR), visible light and infrared radiation. UV radiation is a known carcinogen, It can pierce deep into the layer of skin which causes immediate tanning and premature aging of skin and certain type of skin cancers. Most of the people are ignorant about the different concepts related to the harmful effects of ultra violet rays. Therefore, the current study was designed to explore the knowledge and awareness of college going girls pertaining to the different aspects of the sun protection. An exploratory study was conducted through survey using questionnaire to collect data for assessing the awareness regarding different aspects of sun protection among female students of GBPUAT, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The data revealed that most of the respondents were not aware of different aspects of sun protection like range of UV radiations, UPF, characteristics of sun protective measures and health effects due to exposure to sunlight.
Weed growth is a major problem for narrow spaced crops causing a considerably lower yield. At present, manual weeding tools are the only option for narrow spaced crops. Due to the need of an hour, a 1.3 kW petrol engine operated manually guided power weeder with different types of blade for narrow row crops was designed and developed. Operational parameters viz., three forward speeds (1, 1.5 and 2 km h-1), two depths of operation (20 and 40 mm) and three types of blade (L-shape, T-shape and C-shape) were selected to evaluate its performance for weeding in field conditions. Power weeder attached to T-type blade with a forward speed of 2 km h-1 at 20 mm depth of operation was optimized for his highest performance index (1079) and field capacity (0.251 ha h-1). It shows satisfactory weeding efficiency (88.2%), plant damage (2.5%), fuel consumption (0.88 l h-1) and field efficiency (63%).
Seed drill with fluted-roller seed metering devices is the mostly used for sowing of wheat crop in India. For
obtaining the high yield, it is very essential to drop the wheat seeds in rows maintaining accurate seed rate with minimum damage to seeds during metering. This mainly depends on forward speed of the ground wheel, exposure length of the fluted-roller seed metering
mechanism and hopper depth. The relationship between these factors and the dependent parameter, i.e., seed rate can be established using multiple linear regression analysis. Hence, an attempt has been made to develop the multiple linear regression (MLR) model
using 3 Factor Completely Randomized Design for the prediction of the performance parameters (seed rate) of the fluted-roller seed metering device using speed of ground wheel, hopper depth and exposure length as input parameters. The data were generated in the
laboratory by conducting experiments on a sticky belt test setup. The generated data was used to develop statistical model. All independent parameters such as hopper depth, exposure length and speed of ground wheel were found highly significant on seed rate.
The R2 values for MLR model during training, validation and testing were found to be 0.983, 0.988 and 0.986 respectively and RMSE values during training, validation and testing were found to be 17.84, 14.84 and 13.71 respectively Seed drill, fluted-roller seed metering mechanism, multiple linear regression (MLR) model, wheat.
With the increase in water consumption and climatic variation, hundreds of spring fed watersheds is at a great threat. Due to decline of discharge in conventional water resources crop land has also shrunken which has affected the economy of the region to a great extent. Underground water is present in the form of porous aquifer and springs in hilly and mountainous regions. Due to lack of maintenance and over exploitation many conventional water sources are at the verge of extinction. In this study, GIS- based weighted sum analysis approach was used to identify sites of water potential zones which can be used for both water extraction and rejuvenation of these conventional water sources. GIS based tools can be used for studying of relief and structural aspects of basin. Different factors were quantified and the influence of each factor over is judged. Results show that 21% of area lies under good recharge potential while 79% of the area lies under poor groundwater potential region. Areas with good to excellent recharge potential may be considered for augmentation measures to sustain its specific yield in the future.
Springs are critical resource for the people of the Bageshwar block of Bageshwar district but are currently facing threats as a result of rapid urbanization and climate change. Here the people mainly depend on springs as the primary source of water. As a result, the majority of people in Bageshwar become reliant on springs to satisfy their daily water demand. The water quality of these springs is declining because of numerous anthropogenic activities, such as construction, deforestation, etc. The current study evaluated the drinking water quality of Bageshwar block springs in Bageshwar district, which are located in Uttarakhand's eastern Kumaon region between latitudes 29degree41'60"N to 29degree53'60" N and longitudes 79degree35'60"E to 80degree5'60"E and has an average elevation of 882.30 m above mean sea level. The study area map was created using the open-source freeware software QGIS, and the geocoding of the selected area was performed by entering latitude and longitude coordinates. Spring water was collected and analysed based on the standard methods for the eleven springs of the Bageshwar block for two seasons the winter (December 2020) and summer (March 2021). The present study assessed the drinking water quality of perennial springs in and around Bageshwar using Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WAWQI) method. For calculating the Water Quality Index (WQI), 15 physicochemical parameters, namely, pH, alkalinity, Chloride, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Potassium, Sodium, Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate, Calcium and Magnesium were taken. The WQI values shows that spring water ranging from 6.84 to 23.46 in the winter season and 5.98 to 16.46 in the summer season falls under the excellent category. A paired t-test was applied to compare significant variations in water quality between two seasons, revealing a significant difference (p-value is less than 0.05) in water quality between seasons. Water from all of the evaluated spring sources is safe to drink, even though some parameters exceed permitted limits. To ensure the quality and security of the water supply to the people of these regions, it is preferable to conduct a simple filtration process before drinking the water sampled from the springs.