Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) is a major oilseed crop with more than 90% share in the acreage of oilseed brassicas grown in India. White rust is one of the major diseases that hamper the productivity and production to a considerable level. One collection (GP-11-222) from village-Van, Block-Dewal of district Almora (Altitude 7612 msl, Longitude 790 37.454; Latitude 300 11.45) grown in the field during 2011-12 showed segregation for several traits including reaction against white rust disease. The crop season during 2011-12 at Pantnagar was highly congenial for development of white rust disease therefore, helped in screening of germplasm for the diseases under natural conditions in the field. As a result of which 22 plants showing resistance to white rust were selected. Screening of descendants of selections from 2011-12 to 2016-17 in the field under artificially inoculated condition resulted into 14 promising lines. During 2015-16 and 2016-17 these 14 selected lines were screened in the field as well as in the glasshouse under controlled condition by the pathologist. All the 14
lines were found completely free from white rust infection in field condition while at cotyledonary stage four progenies have shown immune reaction and six progenies have shown resistance reaction. At true leaf stage only four progenies have shown resistance reaction. Out of these four progenies, only one progeny had also shown at par performance in terms of morphological traits. Genetic study indicated presence of single dominant gene conferring resistance against white rust. Allelic study showed presence of a different source of resistance gene in the identified line. Further studies on its molecular verification need to be done.
Even though there are abundant rice genetic resources, only a fraction is used in breeding programs leading to a narrow genetic base for improved varieties. In order to develop superior cultivars, each crop breeding programme must have genetic variability. In the present investigation, fifty rice genotypes were used to estimate the genetic variability, heritability, and
genetic advance for yield and yield-related traits. The experiment was conducted using RBD with two replications. In the current investigation, analysis of variance revealed significant difference among the 50 rice genotypes studied for various quantitative traits. Phenotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 7.66 to 23.01 %. Highest value obtained for number of
effective tillers (23.01%) followed by leaf length (19.77%) and lowest value obtained for panicle length (7.66%). Genotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 3.69 to 19.47%. Highest value obtained for number of effective tillers (19.47%) followed by leaf length (18.27%) and plant height (13.23%). PCV is higher than GCV but there was a small difference between value of GCV and PCV which indicated low impact of environment. Heritability in broad sense ranged from 23.2 to 97.8 %. High heritability
obtained for plant height (97.8%) followed by days to maturity (95.7%) and days to 50% flowering (94%) and lowest value was obtained for panicle length (23.2%) followed by yield per plant (30.3%). Genetic advance percentage of mean ranged from 3.66 to 34.80 %. Genetic advance percentage of mean was highest for leaf length (34.802 %) followed by number of effective tillers (33.94%) and plant height (26.96 %). In present investigation, high heritability coupled with high genetic advance obtained for
plant height, days to 50% flowering, leaf length and number of effective tillers. This revealed presence of additive genetic variance and hence selection for above mention traits may be effective. Furthermore, genetic materials used in the current investigation exhibited adequate genetic variability which can be utilized in crop improvement programs.
The primary production of an ecosystem is primarily dependent upon net photosynthesis (Pn). Furthermore, rapid and non-destructive techniques for the assessment of Pn are needed to monitor the plant growth and development. Hence, we evaluated the hyperspectral measurements to estimate the Pn under different nitrogen treatments in rice crop. Other variables like photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) were also measured simultaneously at three different growth stages of rice. Vegetation index (VI) was calculated using the hyperspectral measurements to develop a model based on VI, PAR, and CCI to estimate Pn. The response of Pn to the normalized difference vegetation index developed at 700nm (NDVI700) was found better in comparison to the other VIs. Furthermore, the model with CCI x NDVI x PAR (R2 = 0.77) was found best among all the models tested to estimate the net photosynthesis.
This paper presents insights into integrated farming systems (IFS) of crops with livestock and allied enterprises, implemented in on-station situation. Research studies have demonstrated the technical feasibility and economic viability of
integrated farming systems. Compared with traditional cropping system (rice-wheat), the proposed 1.0 ha IFS model (crops+dairy+horticulture/agroforestry+fisheries+ vermin-compost/biogas+ kitchengarden) brought increased productivity, revenue and better resource recycling. The productivity in rice equivalent grain yield (REGY as t /ha/yr) and net returns from inclusion of
allied enterprises in IFS were about 31.34t REGY/ha/yr and Rs 234730, respectively as compared to 9.5 t REGY/ha/yr and Rs 94,800 respectively in case of rice-wheat cropping system. Besides facilitating cash income, integrated farming system generates additional employment of 250 workdays for family labour. It also sustains soil productivity through the recycling of organic nutrient sources (50.8%) from the enterprises involved.
The field experiment was carried out during spring season 2019 at Forage Block, Instructional Dairy Farm, Nagla, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand). The aim of the study was to find out the effect of mulches and irrigation schedules on productivity and water use efficiency of spring sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Mollisols of Uttarakhand. The results indicated that straw mulch produced taller plants and more number of leaves/plant and remained statistically at par with polythene mulch. However, polythene mulch had higher dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, head diameter, seed weight/plant, 100 seed weight and seed yield was 4.6 and 18.5% higher than straw mulch and control, respectively. The irrigation scheduled at 1.2 IW/CPE was superior to all other irrigation schedules with the highest values of growth and yield attributes and also produced seed yield 5.4, 11.1 and 14.8% higher than irrigation schedules 1.0 and 0.8 IW/CPE and critical growth stages, respectively. The polythene mulch and 1.2 IW/CPE gave higher water use efficiency. The net
return was 4.4 and 6.8% higher under straw mulch than polythene mulch and control, respectively, while irrigation scheduled at 1.2 IW/CPE had 5.9, 13.79 and 15.12 % higher net return than irrigation scheduled at 1.0, 0.8 IW/CPE as well as critical stages, respectively. It is therefore concluded that sunflower may be grown with application of straw mulch @ 6 ton/ha and irrigation scheduled at 1.2 IW/CPE ratio for higher productivity, net return as well as water use efficiency during spring season in Mollisols of Uttarakhand and may also be replicated in similar agro-ecological zones of India.
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season 2019-20 at the N. E. Bourlag Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) to find out growth and yield response of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) to foliar nutrition and growth regulator application. The black gram variety Pant U-31 was used for sowing. The experiment was consisted of 11 treatments viz., absolute control, water spray at 40 and 55 DAS, foliar spray of 2% urea at 40 (flowering) and 55 DAS (grain filling), 2% SSP at 40 DAS, 2% SSP at 55 DAS, 2% SSP at 40 and 55 DAS, 100 ppm SA(salicylic acid ) at 40 DAS, 100 ppm SA at 55 DAS, 100 ppm SA at 40 and 55 DAS, and 2% SSP at 40 DAS followed by 100 ppm SA at 55 DAS,100 ppm SA at 40 DAS fb2% SSP at 55 DAS. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Foliar spray of 2% SSP at flowering and grain filling produced highest branches per plant and dry matter per plant which was at par with foliar spray of 2% urea at 40 and 55 and 100 ppm SA at 40 DAS followed by 2% SSP at 55 DAS. The grain yield was significantly influenced by the foliar application of 2% single super phosphate at flowering and 15 days later (36.2%), followed by 2% urea at flowering and 15 later (34.6% )and foliar spray of 100 ppm salicylic acid at 40 days after sowing
followed by 2% single super phosphate at 55 days after sowing (28.9%). The number of pods per plant, grain weight per plant and 1000 seed weight were also significantly influenced by foliar nutrition and salicylic acid whereas number of grains per pod did not responded significantly in regards to foliar nutrition and salicylic acid. Therefore, it may be concluded that foliar spray of SSP @ 2% at flowering and grain filling was found significantly effective as foliar spray of 2% urea at flowering and grain filling and salicyclic acid @ 100 ppm at flowering followed by SSP @ 2% at grain filling to improve growth and grain yield of black gram.
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season to evaluate the efficacy of FYM and inorganic nitrogen levels on growth, dry matter accumulation, yield and nutrient uptake of Brahmi crop. Crop was treated with N:P:K (100:50:50 kg/ha), FYM (5, 10, 15 and 20 t/ha), N+ FYM (75 kg + 5 t/ha, 50 kg + 10 t/ha and 25 kg + 15 t/ha) and control. The study revealed that growth characters viz., upright shoot length, number of shoots and number of leaves, dry matter accumulation, yield and nutrient uptake increased with increasing the fertility levels. Maximum dry biomass yield 7.8 t/ha was recorded with an integrated package of N @ 75 kg + FYM @ 5 t/ha treatment which was at par with N:P:K @ 100:50:50 kg/ha and FYM @ 20 t/ha. Highest value of dry matter accumulation (808.5 g/m2) and nitrogen uptake (106.3 kg/ha) was also recorded due to N @ 75 kg + FYM @ 5 t/ha treatment however phosphorus and potassium uptake by plant was maximum with N:P:K @ 100:50:50 kg/ha.
A field experiment was carried out to evaluate double type or petaloid male sterile varieties of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) for their growth, flowering behaviour and yield characters in different seasons viz. summer, rainy and winter under tarai conditions at Model Floriculture Centre, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India during February, 2019 - February 2020 with five varieties i.e., Arka Agni, Arka Bangara, Arka Bangara -2, Bidhan Marigold -1 and Bidhan Marigold -2 . During summer season maximum plant height (42.04 cm), plant spread (30.66 cm), number of branches per plant (42), earliest flower bud appearance, flower diameter (7.22 cm), fresh weight of flower (8.35g), dry weight of flower (1.19g), number of flowers (80.20), flower yield per plant (677.03 g), flower yield per hectare (42.30 tonnes) and were recorded in Arka Bangara -2. During rainy season, the highest plant height (117.63 cm), plant spread (94.90 cm), number of branches per plant (46.15), fresh weight of flower (8.15 g), dry weight of flower (1.63 g), number of flowers (81.22), flower yield per plant (676.77 g) and flower yield per hectare (42.42 tonnes), were recorded in Bidhan Marigold 1 and earliest flower bud appearance (41.81 days) was recorded in Bidhan Marigold 2. During winter season, the highest plant spread (46.75 cm), number of branches per plant (40.10), fresh weight of flower (7.61g), dry weight of flower (1.08g), number of flowers per plant (80.95), flower yield per plant (616.01 g), flower yield per hectare (38.49 tonnes) were recorded in Arka Agni and earliest flower bud appearance (43.9 days), maximum plant height (63.02 cm) and flower diameter (7.42 cm)
were recorded in Arka Bangara 2.
The effect of different pyrolysis temperatures was examined on the major nutrient composition, nutrient ratios and some physico-chemical properties of biochars produced from pine needles, lantana and wheat straw. An increase in pyrolysis temperature increased the concentrations of C and K in all biochars except in wheat straw biochar wherein a decrease in C was noticed with an increase in pyrolysis temperature from 450 degree C to 550 degree C. Phosphorus concentration in wheat and pine needle biochars increased significantly with the increase in pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 450 degree C and further increase from 450 to 550 degree C decreased P concentration in wheat straw and pine needle biochar but an exactly opposite trend was noted for the C:P ratio. Both the pH and electrical conductivity of biochar increased with increase in pyrolysis temperature, however, increase in temperature from 450 to 550 degree C decreased pH of Lantana biochar and electrical conductivity of lantana and wheat straw biochar. Considering the concentrations of major nutrients and physicochemical properties of plant-based biochar, a pyrolysis temperature of 450 degree C appeared to be optimum for biochar production. Among different feedstocks, biochar produced from pine needles had the highest N content while the one derived from wheat straw had the highest P and K content.
An investigation was carried out to analyze the general soil properties and extractable macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) and micro-nutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo) in the soils of Tehri Garhwal district and the relationships between general soil properties and soil extractable nutrients. Surface (0-15 cm) soil samples (n= 300) were taken from the nine developmental blocks of Tehri Garhwal. The ranges for general properties were: sandy loam to silty clay loam texture, 4.55 to 8.17 soil pH and 0.099-0.931 dSm-1 electrical conductivity (EC) (1:2 soil-water suspension) and 3.09-10.68 g kg-1 soil organic carbon content. The amount of alkaline KMnO4 extractable N in these soils ranged from 123.2-226.8 mg kg-1 soil while Olsen's or Bray's extractable P content ranged from 9.6-92.1 mg kg-1 soil. Neutral normal ammonium acetate extractable K, Ca and Mg varied from 44.5-296.7 mg kg-1 soil, 50 - 3550 mg kg-1 soil and 30 - 1560 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. Calcium chloride (0.15 per cent) extractable S ranged from 6.8 to 58.1 mg kg-1 soil. The contents of DTPA extractable Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn were 0.20-16.30 mg kg-1 soil, 0.25-11.03 mg kg-1 soil, 0.39-78.0 mg kg-1 soil, and 0.29-61.37 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. Hot water-soluble B ranged from 0.30-3.60 mg kg-1 soil and ammonium oxalate (pH 3.3) extractable Mo varied from 0.07-0.52 mg kg-1 soil. The soil pH had a significant and positive correlation with K, Ca, S, Zn, Cu, and B. Soil extractable P, K, S, Zn, Cu, and B had a significant and positive correlation with soil EC. Organic carbon in the soil had a significant and positive correlation with nitrogen and phosphorus. Overall for the whole district, the extent of macro-nutrient deficiencies was 4.0, 2.3 and 8.0 per cent for K, Ca and S, respectively while these values were 8.3, 12.0, 7.3 and 9.7 per cent for Zn, Fe, Mn and Mo, respectively
A field experiment was carried out during rabi season 2020 to determine the effect of Magnetite NanoFertilizer (Fe3O4 NPs) stabilized with EDTA on growth, yield and nutrient content of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica). The Fe3O4 NPs were prepared and particle size analysis revealed that the particle size was of 40 nm. Experiment with spraying of three iron nutrient sources with four different concentrations (Fe EDTA, 300 ppm, FeSO4.7H2O, 195 ppm and EDTA stabilized
Fe3O4 NPs, 6 ppm and 3 ppm) were conducted on Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications of crop. The results revealed that application of 3 ppm solution of stabilized Fe3O4 NPs to broccoli significantly increased the plant height, stalk length, total head yield per hectare and biological yield per hectare as compared to control treatment. The result indicated the significant influence of applying Fe3O4 NPs, 3 ppm followed by FeSO4.7H2O, 195 ppm. These micronutrients helped in increasing plant height, stalk length, head weight per plant, head yield quintal per hectare and nutrient content in head with respect to control. Thus, stabilized Fe3O4 NPs, at 3 ppm foliar application seems to be a promising approach to maximize broccoli growth and head yield production.
Three sets of experiment were conducted at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 per cent (v/w) to study the effect of sixteen essential oils on the progeny production of Sitophilus oryzae. The essential oils showing >90.00, 80.00 to 89.99, 70.00-79.99 and <70.00 per cent mean inhibition were classified as highly, moderately, less and least effective, respectively. None of the oil was found to be
highly effective at 0.1 per cent. The essential oils of Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata suppressed more than 90 per cent progeny of test insect at 0.2 per cent due to which they were classified as highly effective at this level. Similar result was also observed in case of
Cymbopogon winterianus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Pinus roxburghii at 0.3 and 0.4 per cent due to which they were also classified as highly effective at these concentrations. The essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus was highly effective at 0.4 per cent. The oil of Cymbopogon martinii was moderately effective at 0.2 to 0.4 per cent while the oils of Cedrus deodara, Cinnamomum camphora , Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens,
Pogostemon patchouli were least effective against S. oryzae in the present study.
The bio-efficacy of essential oils extracted from 16 plants was studied against Lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) under laboratory condition. The overall efficacy of oil on survival, feeding and breeding of insect was measured by observing the inhibition of F1 progeny of insects released in the treated grain. The essential oils exhibiting > 90-100, > 80-89.99, > 70-79.99 and < 70 were classified as highly, moderately, less and least effective, respectively. Significant difference in the efficacy of essential oils was recorded against the test insect. Essential oils of Curcuma longa,
Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha arvensis, Mentha. piperita, Pinus roxburghii were found highly effective at 0.1 to 0.4 per cent concentration(v/w) while such efficacy was exhibited by Cymbopogon winterianus, Eucalyptus citriodora and Mentha spicata at 0.2 to 0.4 per cent. On the other hand, essential oils of Mentha citrata and Pelargonium graveolens were highly effective at 0.3 to 0.4 per cent while Cymbopogon flexuosus exhibited such efficacy at a very high concentration of 0.6 to 1.0 per cent. Essential oils of C. flexuosus, M. citrata and M. spicata were moderately effective at 0.2 to 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 per cent, respectively. The essential oils of C. martini, E. citriodora and P. graveolens were classified as less effective at 0.2 to 0.4, 0.1 and 0.2 per cent, respectively. The essential oils of Cedardeodara, Cinnamomum camphora, Myristica fragrans and Pogostemon patchouli were classified as least effective against R. dominica. The efficacy of some essential oils such as C. flexuosus, C. martini, C. winteri
anus and M. citrate also decreased at 0.1 per cent due to which they were classified as least effective at lowest concentration.
Experiments were conducted to study the variation in the yield and composition of essential oil of Murraya koenigii and its effect on fumigant action against Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus oryzae. The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of test plant in each month of the year and its composition was determined through Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The samples of spring (March-April), summer (May-June), rainy (July-September), autumn (October-November) and winter (December- February) were pooled to study the effect on test insects. The yield of essential oil varied from 0.07-0.43% in different month and maximum oil was obtained in November and December. The amount of monoterpenes was higher in autumn season (61.60%) followed by summer (59.00%), spring (55.80%), winter (55.41%) and rainy season (43.37%). On the other hand, sesquiterpenes were higher in spring season (36.46%) followed by winter (30.28%), autumn (28.55%),summer (26.60%) and rainy season(24.73%). Total terpenes were highest in spring (92.25%) followed by autumn (90.15%), winter (85.69%), summer (85.60%) and rainy season (68.10%). The essential oils of all the seasons inhibited 97.8 to 100.0 per cent progeny production at higher concentrations of 0.20 and 0.10% (w/v).At lower concentrations of 0.05, 0.025 and 0.012%, oils extracted in spring season was most effective against R. dominica and S. oryzae, while lowest efficacy was shown by oil extracted in rainy season. Results demonstrated that the efficacy of oil was dependent on level of constituents which varied with stage of plant and season.
The study was conducted to identify different biocontrol agents associated with papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus at Pantnagar, India. A total of five natural enemies were recorded including four predators and one parasitoid out of which three important predators viz., Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, Spalgis epius Westwood, and Gitonides sp. Were collected during the study. The grub of Chrysopa sp. was also reported to prey on P. marginatus in the laboratory. One of the parasitoids, Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff was also observed from the parasitized cocoons. This survey provides a descriptive account of natural enemies of papaya mealybug, P. marginatus in Tarai region of Uttarakhand.
Field efficacy of compatible combination of Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis with two botanicals, an insect growth regulator (IGR) and a chemical insecticide was tested against Spodoptera litura, Spilarctia obliqua and Maruca vitrata infesting green gram. Bacillus thuringiensis in combination with other insecticides was found more effective to combat
the lepidopteran's population than B. bassiana. Study revealed that B. bassiana and B. thuringiensis in combination with chlorantraniliprole and azadirachtin showed highest reduction in the population of these lepidopterans. However, combination of
B. thuringiensis with chlorantraniliprole and azadirachtin showed more effective than combination of B. bassiana with chlorantraniliprole and and azadirachtin. The combinations like B.thuringiensis+chlorantraniliprole18.5SC, B. thuringiensis + azadirachtin 10000ppm, B. bassiana + chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC and B. bassiana + azadirachtin 10000 ppm were found more effective against S. litura, S. obliqua and M. vitrata
The purpose of this study was carried out to find out the seasonal abundance of predatory coccinellid species in various crop ecosystems at Pantnagar. Four species viz., Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus), Coccinella transversalis (Linnaeus), Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were observed throughout the study period with their highest populations observed during 12th, 1st, 15th and 12th standard week respectively, from field crops (Wheat, Mustard, Cotton, Maize, etc), fruit crops (Mango, Guava, Pomegranate), vegetable crops (Potato, Brinjal, Cabbage, etc.) and ornamental plants (Rose, Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, etc.). Some other coccinellid species like Anegleis cardoni (Weise), Illeis koebelei (Timberlake) and Hippodamia variegate (Goeze) were considered rare at Pantnagar as these were observed only 50th, 14th and 15th standard weeks respectively in Rose, Dahlia and Hibiscus flowers in very small numbers.
Sponge gourd, Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. is a common vegetable crop possessing hermaphrodite flowers. Investigation was carried out to study the diversity of flower visiting insects, abundance and foraging behaviour of insect pollinators, floral attributes like anthesis, flower size, anther dehiscence, flower sex ratio and the mechanism of pollen transfer from staminate to the pistillate flowers on the sponge gourd. A total of 23 species from four insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera were recorded from the sponge gourd flowers with hymenopteran pollinators contributing to 17 of such species. Across the 11 species considered as pollinators, 1.67 insects visited 50 flowers per 5 minutes, exhibiting their peak activity during 8.30 to 10.30 am. The bee species, Tetragonula iridipennis, Apis dorsata, A. cerana and A. mellifera were recorded as more frequent visitors with a mean abundance of 5.79, 3.84, 2.41 and 1.98 bees/50 flowers/5 min, respectively. Further, Xylocopa iridipennis visited maximum number of Luffa flowers (range: 12-15) with minimum time spent on a single sitting (5-27 seconds). Whereas, the stingless bee, T. iridipennis was found to be visiting the least number of flowers (range: 2-5) in a single visit while spending maximum time on a single flower (110-170 seconds). Significance of commercial cultivation of this summer vegetable crop for beekeeping has also been discussed.
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum graminicola is one of the most damaging foliar diseases in the world. The most effective and eco-friendly method to control anthracnose is through the insertion of resistant genes. Twenty sorghum genotypes were screened to identify sources of resistance against the disease under field conditions. Out of twenty genotypes, two (PC 5 and ICSB 474) were moderately resistant while, rest were susceptible to highly susceptible during 2014 and 2015 crop seasons. Genotype PC 5 gave least per cent Disease Index (PDI) and AREA Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) whereas, PC 23 showed maximum PDI and AUDPC during both the seasons.
Sugarcane is an important high value crop which gives high economic returns. It provides products like white crystal, khandsari, jaggery, pressmud, ethanoletc and shows industrial potential. Sugarcane is attacked by many biotic and abiotic factors which is responsible for lowering down the cane yield. Among the biotic factors, diseases caused by fungi are the major cause of concern. Among the various fungal diseases, sugarcane smut caused by pathogen Sporisoriums citamineum (Syn: Ustilago scitamineum) has become highly significant in all over the world. Infected whip produces diploid teliospore and transmit the fungus into the healthy plants. Generally, the whip is the combination of host and pathogen tissue. When plant becomes two to four month-old, whip (covered with transparent layer) emerges. Correct diagnosis of pathogen at correct time is essential specially to identify the pathogen, its pathogenesis, epidemiological studies and finally management aspect. Due to change in science and technology, various molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed and became reliable to study pathogen variability. Sugarcane smut considered as the most dreaded disease, if not manage properly, may affect the cane yield as well as juice quality. Considering the importance of disease, sett treatment with hot water is suggested for the disease management. Some field sanitation practices i.e., removal of infected clumps/plants from field, using disease free sugarcane setts etc. which may lower down inoculum. Disease resistance in plant also plays an important role. Combination of Chemotherapy, biological control, quarantine, biotechnological approaches etc with other practices can be an effective way against sugarcane smut.
Nutritional mapping is defined as making an outline with the help of several surveys to form
an interactive map, with a clear image of nutritional and food status at different regional and state levels. The nutritional mapping system helps to detect community health issues and sketch intervention programmes using data of many years. In this era of satellite imaging, online data and GIS system support, the process
of nutritional mapping system has improved greatly. Nutritional mapping can be used at local, community, national and international level. Mapping the magnitude of a nutritional problem and measures taken to minimize them is essential for pointing out lacunas and for the further development of the nutritional status. However, there is a possibility of Human error or technical error while dealing with large amount of
data. A standard nutrition mapping method may be developed globally which can be used for a small community as well national and international level, to bring uniformity to this very important tool of nutrition science.
Parotta, a popular, traditional and low fiber delicious dish of southern part of India and Sri Lanka was made from refined wheat flour, water, vegetable fat and salt. Addition of psyllium husk, oats and barley bran in parotta increased dietary fiber content from 0.34 to 15.14 per cent. The fiber addition were optimized at level of 2.0 per cent psyllium husk, 10.0 per cent oat bran, 5.0 per cent barley bran by sensory analysis. Stabilization studies were carried out in fiber-enriched parotta by in-pack pasteurization with and without sorbic acid in polypropylene pouches (75u) under ambient storage condition. Total dietary fiber content was found to be higher in oat bran added parotta (15.14 %) followed by psyllium husk (14.8 %) and barley bran parottas (9.86 %) compared to refined wheat flour parotta (0.34 %). Calcium, iron, sodium and potassium mineral content were increased significantly (P<0.05) on addition of psyllium husk followed by barley and oat bran. The protein content found to be higher in barley bran added parotta (6.21 %) followed by oat (6.01 %) and psyllium husk (5.62 %) parottas. Both control and fiber enriched parottas were found to be stable microbiologically at ambient conditions packed in polypropylene pouches up to 90 days with sorbic acid and up to 14 days without sorbic acid.
Vacuum foam-mat drying is a process by which a liquid concentrate along with a suitable foaming agent is used to whip to form stable foam and is subjected to dehydration in the form of a thin mat of foam at relatively low temperature. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to find out the effect of variable on the responses. The initial value of moisture content of raw papaya pulp was 856.023 % (db.). The total soluble solid (TSS) was tested by hand refractrometer i.e., 12.8oBrix. Parameters such as whipping time (10 minute), papaya pulp thickness (4 mm) and vacuum oven pressure (25 inch Hg), pH value 5.56 and TSS(10o Brix) remain constant throughout the work. In view of the above, present study was undertaken with objectives of studying the effect of maltodextrin (0.15-0.75kg/kg papaya pulp solid ), tricalcium phosphate (0.5-2.5%), glycerol monostearate (0.5-2.5%) and drying temperature (55-75 oC) on vacuum foam mat drying characteristics of papaya pulp and to ascertain various quality characteristics of dried papaya powder. The flowability time of papaya powder ranges from 15.65 to 23.62s. Its value is minimum at experiment run number 28 and maximum at experiment run number 1 with the combination of process conditions of temperature 65 degree C, maltodextrin 0.45 (w/w), glycerol monostearate 1.5% and tricalcium phosphate 1.5% and temperature 60 degree C, maltodextrin 0.30 (w/w), glycerol monostearate 1.0% and tricalcium phosphate 2.0% respectively. Hygroscopicity starts from 2.24 (experiment no. 30) to 6.84 (experiment no. 28) while the degree of caking is in between 1.83 (experiment no. 30) to 5.45%
(experiment no. 28). On the basis of different experimental results it was found the minimum drying time was obtained (660 min.) at temperature (60 degree C), maltodextrin (0.60 gm/110gm), GMS(1.0%) and TCP(2.0 %). It was also found that flowability time has
significantly affected by temperature (P<0.01), maltodextrin (p<0.05) and glycerol monostearate (P<0.1), at linear level. The effect of temperature and tricalcium phosphate on hygroscopicity was highly significant (P<0.01) while maltodextrin was significant at 10% level of significance.
In this study, an effort has been made to design and develop an onion digger for the onion field in India. The onion digger has four wheels and a two-wheel drive machine. The digging system consists of a blade made up of high carbon steel material (EN45), which was the central digging part of the machine having dimensions 1000mm*250mm*10 mm. Fingers of the reaper binder are also provided to protect the blade from obstacles like heavy rocks and tough metals. The spacing of fingers is 180 mm, and the width of each finger is 100mm. Fingers are fastened on the blade with the help of nuts and bolts, and they are easily replaceable when got damaged. The forward operating speed of the machine is 3-5 km/h, and the maximum speed is10 km/h, having a field capacity of 0.2 hectares per hour. The working depth of the machine is 100mm. Depth is suitable for the field with practically no damage to the onion bulb. The fuel consumption of the machine is 3.5 litres per hour when working at full capacity.
An approximately 5-year-old crossbred female cattle weighing about 250 kg, from Kashipur (Uttarakhand) was reported of having digestive problems, in-coordination and weakness since last 5 days. Blood and faecal samples were collected for further diagnosis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) revealed significant levels of lead (0.37 ppm) in the blood
sample. Calcium-disodium EDTA, multivitamin and supportive therapy was given to the animal. After seven days of treatment, there was a notable improvement in the condition of animal. All the clinical signs returned to normal after two weeks of medication, and the animal recovered completely.
Theileriosis is one of the most common tick-borne haemoprotozoan disease affecting dairy animals in tropical and subtropical region of the country and is responsible for causing huge economic losses to the dairy farmers. The current paper deals with clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of bovine tropical theileriosis in a one-month-old crossbred calf.
Veterinary professionals are always exposed to occupational risks like traumatic injuries, zoonotic diseases and mental health hazards. Physical injuries reported were bite (31.8%), scratch (65.1%), kick (62.8%), horn wound (14%), needle prick (89.2%), fracture (3.8%) and injuries due to falling/ lifting animals/ moving heavy equipment (61.3%). Majority of veterinarians experienced some form of allergy. Incidence of skin irritation was highest among 50.2% veterinarians. Ringworm (13.5%) and fungal infection (26.5%) were most common zoonotic infection. Low level stress was reported in 45% of participants, 34% had moderate and 21% felt high level of psychological stress.
The proportion of participants using protective equipment includes 60% gloves, 1.1% goggles, and 39.8% apron. The study showed that 171(43.6%), 122 (31.1%), 67 (17.1%), 32 (8.2%) veterinarians followed deworming at 6 month, 1 year, 2 year and more than 2 year intervals respectively. The awareness levels concerning occupational hazards among the veterinary health professionals was near optimal but the need was felt to implement efforts aimed at addressing deterrence of occupational hazards.
World Health Organization (WHO) China Country Office told instances of pneumonia of unknown etiology found in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, thereafter, on seventh January 2020, Chinese specialists recognized another novel strain of Coronavirus as the causative agent of the sickness. The infection agent has been renamed by WHO as SARS-CoV- 2 and the disease brought about by it as COVID-19. The virus first identified in China has now spread to more than 210 nations/domains, with reports of nearby transmission occurring in more than 160 of these nations/regions. According to WHO there has been an aggregate of millions of confirmed cases and a great many passings because of COVID-19 around the world. This study was conducted to determine the determinants of cases, recovered and death of the covid-19 with some demographic and economical factors in Indian states. The correlation analysis showed that total population, male, female, population above 60 , no. of literate,
person below poverty and private hospital has significant positive correlation with covid-19 cases, recovery and death whereas population density, public hospital, per capita income, shikhs, Christians, vegetarian- non vegetarian, tobacco smoker, toddy - country liquor, beer, imported alcohol-wine did not show significance.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of probiotics and growth stimulants on the haematological status of Murrah buffalo. Eighteen Murrah buffalo were selected from LRC (Livestock Research Center) at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology Modipuram, Meerut and divided into three groups. Group T0(control)was fed normal basal diet, group T1 and T2 was fed one and two boluses of probiotics and growth stimulants, respectively. The blood parameters (TEC, TLC, Haemoglobin, DLC, Packed cell volume, Albumin, Total protein, SGOT/ALT and SGPT/AST) were estimated. The supplementation of probiotics and growth stimulants had increase TEC, lymphocyte per cent and PCV in group T1 and T2. The monocytes and neutrophils per cent decreased in group T1 and T2. Plasma protein level increased by probiotics and growth stimulants supplementation whereas, albumin, ALT, AST and haematological variable were not affected.
"Ecotas bolus" A combination of probiotics and growth stimulants improved haematology and blood biochemical variables effectively.
A study was conducted to find out the effect of supplementation of black cumin seeds on growth performance and haematological parameters of commercial broilers. One hundred twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into
four treatment with three replicates of ten chicks each and fed with basal diet (T 1), basal diet + black cumin seeds @ 0.5%, (T2), basal diet + black cumin seeds @ 0.75%, (T 3) and basal diet + black cumin seeds @ 1.0% respectively for 42 days period. At the end of the experiment on 42 nd days two birds from each replicate (six birds/treatment) were randomly sacrificed
for estimate of haematological parameters. The result of the experiment indicated that dietary inclusion of black cumin seeds in broiler chicken increased body weight gain, decreased feed intake and improved feed convers ion ratio (FCR)
significantly (P<0.05) with best performance during all the periods was noted in group supplemented with 0.5 per cent of
black cumin seeds. Among haematological parameters, TEC, TLC, PCV and Hb showed significant difference among treatment groups as compared to control group. On the basis of present study it can be concluded that black cumin seeds as an additive to broiler chicken feed @ 0.5-1.0 per cent level may be recommended to improve the growth performance and
Haematological parameters in broiler chicken.