Maize is genetically different from its wild species teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) for various traits since maize has undergone domestication process over 10,000 years ago in the Balsas river valley of Mexico. But some major traits namely plant architecture have seen domestication syndrome which created significant differences between modern maize and its wild progenitor teosinte. It is assumed that some genes/allelic form for plant architecture, particularly for leaf angle, were probably lost during maize domestication and selective breeding. Several reports claim that teosinte have diverse and novel alleles for plant architecture which were absent in modern maize. Plant architecture determines plants canopy, light harvesting capacity and water and nutrient use efficiency. We investigated BC1 F2 population derived from maize×teosinte cross. The population was subjected to phenotypic evaluation for Leaf Angle (LA), Flag Leaf Length (FLL) and Flag Leaf Width (FLW). Investigation indicates wide variability for LA, FLL and FLW in BC1 F2 generation. Based on the data and analysis, 305 lines were grouped into different categories based on range of values. Out of 305 BC1 F2 plants, 216 plants showed >450 leaf angle and 89 plants had had <450, and for flag leaf length and width 305 BC1F2 plants showed differential behaviour. The investigation results indicate that teosinte has great significance in broadening and diversification of genetic base of maize germplasm. Further there is enough probability of incorporating erect leaves habit in maize by using teosinte as donor parent that may ultimately help in accommodating more plants per unit area for increasing production and productivity of maize.
The current study aimed to assess the impact of GA3 and NAA at various concentrations on seed germination and seedling growth in kilmora. Seven treatments and three replications made up the experiment’s randomised block design. Regarding improving seed germination, plant height, and the number of leaves per plant, the kilmora seed treated with GA3 at 75 ppm was the most successful treatment compared to other treatments.
This study was carried out in Akoko Edo Local Government of Edo State to identify some of the major soils of the project area, through a geographic information system (GIS) and soil survey. Considering the active soil forming factors in the Local Government, five mapping units were delineated and representative pedons were studied, described and sampled. Soil samples were analyzed using standard methods. Soils were classified according to both USDA soil taxonomy and WRB Systems of Soil Classification. The results showed that Pedon 1 was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy Kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Fluventic Humic Dystrudept while according to WRB, it was classified as Haplic Fluvic Cambisol (Dystric, Humic) with an aerial coverage of 560.6 ha (0.4%). Pedon 2 occupied an area of 52,715.3 ha (40.7%) and was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy Kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Fluvaquentic Dystrudept and Haplic Fluvic Cambisol (Siltic, Greyic) according to WRB system of soil classification. Pedon 3 occupied an area of 67,189.4 ha (51.8%) was classified as Loamy kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Fluventic Dystrudept according to USDA while WRB classified it as Haplic Fluvic Cambisol (Dystric). Pedon 4 was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy Kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Oxyaquic Eutrudept while WRB classified it as Haplic Endogleyic Cambisol (Gleyic Oxyaquic). It occupies an aerial of 8,447.3 ha (6.5%). Pedon 5 on the other hand, occupying an area of 734.2 ha (0.6 %) was classified according to USDA soil taxonomy as Loamy kaolinitic Isohyperthemic Humic dystrudept and Haplic, Fluvic Cambisols (Dystric, Humic) according to WRB system of classification. This research will therefore unveil the different types of soils in the area as well as the aerial extent of each soil type.
A field trial was conducted for the study of insect pests and associated natural enemies in foothill basmati rice during the kharif season of 2020 and 2021 at Kotabagh Block in Nainital District, Uttarakhand. Eleven insect species belonging to six different orders, including Homoptera (white-backed plant hopper, green leaf hopper and brown plant hopper), Lepidoptera (leaf folder, yellow stem borer), Coleoptera (rice hispa), Orthoptera and Hemiptera (heteroptera) rice gundhi bug and rice grasshopper were revealed during the study period to be associated with basmati rice in this Kotabagh block District Nainital, Uttarakhand region. Coccinellids, Hemipterans, Coleopterans, damsel flies, dragon flies and carabid beetles were identified as natural enemies in the rice agro-ecosystem
The present investigation facilitated to witness a total of seventeen species of insects that have been damaging (pests) and protecting (natural enemies) the cabbage crop at different villages of Udham Singh Nagar during Rabi 2020. Out of these, five species of defoliators, viz., Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera, Plutella xylostella, Phyllotreta cruciferae and Attractomorpha similis and one sucking pest, i.e., Brevicoryne brassicae (aphid) were recorded to cause noticeable damage to the crop. Among the various insect pests of cabbage S. litura, B. brassicae and H. armigera were more in numbers and had relatively higher abundance as compared to other species and hence considered the major pest of economic importance. Considering the pest complex of cabbage in the present study the order Lepidoptera occupied the largest number of species followed by Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera.