Cotton is the most important fiber crop globally, grown over tropical and subtropical regions world. The narrow genetic base of the cotton germplasm being used in breeding programs is one of the factors in failing to achieve appreciable amount of progress in improving fiber as well as yield contributing traits. Molecular markers have been successfully applied to estimate genetic diversity, besides their use in advancing the breeding cycle. ISSR markers were used to assess molecular diversity among nine elite
genotypes in upland cotton in this investigation. Primers ISSR 32 and UBC 842 were recorded with maximum PIC value (0.68) indicating maximum contribution of these primers for diversity analysis. The NTSYS-pc UPGMA tree cluster analysis resulted that nine genotypes were quite distinct and were grouped in four clusters at 69% similarity index. The use of two genotypes from different clusters in hybridization could produce feasible heterotic combinations in forthcoming breeding programmes.
Heterosis was studied for 12 characters in 60 crosses developed by crossing 20 lines and tree testers (2 CMS & 1
TGMS) a line x tester mating design. Promising hybrids expressed highest SCA effects for grain yield were obtained with general
combiners involved into different parental combinations of UPR 3403-4-1-1 x UPRI 95-167 (L1 x T1), UPRI 2008-62 x UPRI 95-17A
(L20 x T2) and UPR 3428-4-1-1 x UPRI 95-17A(L11 x T2). The per cent estimate for standard heterosis for grain yield was recorded highest for UPRI 2008-39 x PUSA6A(L19 x T3) followed by UPR 3403-4-1-1 x UPRI 95-17A(L1 x T1) and UPRI 2008-62 x PUSA6A
(L20 x T3). These identified hybrids have potential and can be channelized in rice hybrid development programme after further testing
in station/multiplications trials.
A field investigation was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal, Kurnool (Dist.) in Andhra
Pradesh during rabi season of 2009 and 2010 to assess the performance of three mustard varieties (Sangam, JD 6 and SEJ 2) and their response to three levels of phosphorus fertilization (20, 30 and 40 kg P2O5/ha). The experiment comprised of nine treatments and was
laid out in randomized factorial design with three replications. The results revealed that among the varieties, SEJ 2 resulted in significantly more number of branches plant-1, number of siliqua/plant and there by higher seed yield (1018 kg/ha during 2009 and 917
kg/ha during 2010) as compared to JD 6 and SEJ 2 during both the years of investigation. Even though application of phosphorus @ 40 kg P2O5/ha significantly increased yield attributes and seed yield as compared to 20 kg P2O5 /ha, but was statistically similar to that of 30 kg P2O5/ha. Hence, study clearly indicated that for realizing higher mustard seed yield, sangam variety can be grown with an
application of 30 kg P2O5/ha.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Nandyal, Kurnool (Dt.), Andhra Pradesh to evaluate profitable alternate crops (jowar, sunflower, foxtail millet, black gram, mustard, soybean and safflower) to chickpea. The results clearly indicated that in both the years of study, significantly higher seed yield (1595
and 1760 kg ha-1), maximum gross (Rs.55839 and 70408 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 45,839 and 55,408 ha-1) and B: C ratio (5.6 and 4.7) was
recorded with chickpea among all the crops tested. However, among alternate crops evaluated, mustard and black gram resulted in significantly higher Bengal gram equivalent yield (BGEY) (1129 and 1034 kg ha-1; 853 and 1070 kg ha-1 during 2011-12 and 2012-13
respectively), net returns (Rs.32,021 and 28,701ha-1; Rs.19,628 and 30,312 kgha-1 during 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively) and B:C ratio (5.3 and 4.8; 3.0 and 3.4 during 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively) compared to rest crops.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Black rice is a type of pigmented rice with black bran covering the endosperm of the rice kernel. Black rice ‘Chakhao’ is an aromatic and pigmented rice variety popular
in Asia, whose demand and consumption is increasing day by day in India as well as in the world due to its numerous health benefits. Black rice is grown under rainfed condition in both upland and lowland rice ecosystem. It is not consumed as staple food but
consumed as the functional foods because of its anthocyanin content, acts as major bio-active compound. Accumulation of anthocyanin (Cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) in the pericarp, tegmen and aleurone layer
promotes black color to rice grains. Anthocyanins are water soluble pigment which is responsible for the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of black rice. It has potential use in neutraceutical or functional food formulation.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of fungicides and packaging materials on the
longevity of brinjal seed (variety: Hisar Shyamal-8). The seeds were treated with 15 fungicides and were kept in three
containers viz., Metal box, cloth bag and plastic zipling bag up to 12 months under ambient conditions in Seed
Pathology Laboratory of Department of Seed Science & Technology, CCSHAU, Hisar. The samples were drawn at
quarterly intervals for ascertaining the seed quality parameters. The seeds treated with carbendazim (2g kg-1 seed) and stored in metal-box were found better for maintenance of higher seed quality parameters [germination (71.7%), root
length(3.72cm), shoot length(5.93cm), mean seedling dry weight(26.7mg), vigour indices-1&2 (658 & 1912)] during
study period. The study suggested that the use of appropriate packaging material and seed treatment could be useful to
prolong the storage life and seed health of brinjal seeds.
Wheat flour is a complex organic dust with a large multiplicity of allergic effects when encountered for a considerable time. There is a growing accord on the toxic effect of flour dust on respiratory functions of flour mill workers. Dust
inhalation over a long period leads to proliferative and fibrotic changes in respiratory tract and lungs. Flour production is
predominantly in the unorganized sector involves the milling process and milling is accomplished by grinding grain between stones
and a steel wheel which leads to workers exposure to floor dust. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the objective of
assessment of the prevalence of occupational allergic disorders, skin problems, lower and upper respiratory tract problems among
flour mill workers. The findings showed that the high prevalence of allergic disorders among flour mill workers were seen and
approximate half of the respondents were in agreement that they have problems such as cough, eczema, wheezing, nasal congestion,
poor sense of smell, hives/swelling, shortness of breath, itchy nose, headache and sneezing due to dust. Grain mill workers were also
reported the skin problems such as skin rash, itching, dry skin, hives, swelling and blistery rashes. Respondents were reported about
frequent or constant cough and wheezing while 19 per cent respondents were strongly agreed about chest tightness, problem of
breathing and pneumonias as lower respiratory tract problems and frequent bronchitis. Majority of the respondents were suffering
from upper respiratory tract problems such as nasal congestion, runny nose, postal nasal drip, itchy nose, red or itchy eyes, sinus
pressure or pain, poor sense of smell, frequent ear infections, frequent sinus infections, frequent colds and hoarse voice.
Bone is a dynamic multifunctional organ. Bone development is a lifelong concern. Dietary intake is an important
lifestyle factor influencing bone health. Bones undergo a continuous process of formation and break-down. From conception to birth
and throughout life, various nutrients significantly impact the process of bone formation and resorption. The process of bone mineralization is regulated by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and trace elements. Vitamin A promotes the differentiation and maturation of bone cells. Vitamin C and vitamin K are involved in the synthesis of bone matrix proteins. Imbalance
of nutrients in the body negatively affects bone health. A healthy diet with an adequate and constant supply of proteins, vitamins, and minerals is required for bone formation and development. Dietary constituents such as essential fatty acids and phytoestrogens are
also essential for bone health. Thus, the review thoroughly discusses the role of various nutrients on bone development and
metabolism, the influence of their deficiency, and excess on bones. We suggest further exploration to assess appropriate role of trace
elements, phytoestrogens, essential fatty acids, vitamin K supplementation, and other non-traditional nutrients on bone health.
Threshing is still a big problem for the majority of farmers in the hilly region. It is a process to detach and clean the
grains from the ear head of crop plants. Grain threshing can either be done mechanically or by traditional methods. The traditional process of threshing of crops like wheat, rice, millet etc. is done by hands in which bunch of crop-panicles are beaten against a hard
element like a wooden log, plank, bamboo-table, stone etc. This process involves lots of drudgeries, wastage of time and losses.Therefore, a unique multi-crop thresher has been developed and tested for threshing, separating and cleaning various crops. The machine was designed to be powered by one hp single phase electric motor. It can be used for threshing of all major crops being grown in the North-Western part of Himalayas. Threshing capacity of the machine for wheat, paddy, barnyard millet, finger millet and
amaranth, was observed as 34, 75, 58, 54, and 30 kg/h, respectively. However, threshing efficiency for these crops was found to be greater than or equal to 98%. Cleaning efficiency for the above crops was more than 95%. This multi-crop thresher would benefit hill and small farmers by not only saving their time and labour but also increase the productivity of hill farmers and reduce the drudgery involved in the manual/traditional threshing operations.
An auto-rotate gun sprayer was evaluated for its bio-efficacy to control whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in the cotton crop. Two experiments were conducted at six farmers’ fields of south-western (cotton-growing region) Punjab. The number of adult whiteflies was counted before and 3, 7 and 10 days after spray. Water sensitive papers were attached at three different points of reach
(top, middle, bottom) upper side and underside of the leaf on the plants to find performance parameters, viz. droplet diameter, droplet density, per cent area covered and volume of spray deposition. Droplet density, area covered and volume of spray deposition were
found significantly higher in case of the auto-rotate gun sprayer as compared to a knapsack sprayer. However, the volume median diameter (VMD) of droplets was found significantly higher in the case of a knapsack sprayer of 347.85 µm as compared to an autorotate gun sprayer of 286.95 µm. The whitefly control in the cotton crop as compared to untreated treatment after 10th days of autorotate gun and knapsack sprayers spray by using pyriproxyfen100 g a.i./ha having bio-efficacy of 64.39 % and 65.65 % and by using flonicamid 75 g a.i./ha was found 85.72% and 74.70%, respectively. The cost of operation of the auto-rotate gun sprayer was found to be USD 4.11/ha as compared to knapsack sprayer with USD 6.85/ha. The cost, labour and time-saving in the spraying of the autorotate gun sprayer as compared to knapsack sprayer was found to be 39.98, 93.44 and 96.64%, respectively.
The present study was undertaken to upgrade the existing traction laboratory of Agricultural and Food Engineering
Department of IIT Kharagpur for the reduction in drudgery and easy operation. A vertical loading mechanism using hydraulics was designed to apply additional normal load up to 25 kN on wheel axle and remove 13 kN load from the initial load. The circuit used for
applying force consisted of a fixed displacement pump, a 3-way, 4-port directional control valve, a relief valve and a double-acting cylinder. Load transducer based on proving ring for 40 kN load bearing capacity was developed. The ring was calibrated to get a
relationship of voltage and load. The calibration was taken both tensile and compression modes. Vertical loading mechanism by hydraulic was validated in both static and dynamic conditions. Validation of hydraulic normal loading was done with test tyres under
static and dynamic conditions. The vertical load was varied from 7.85 kN to 10.30 kN using a hydraulic loading mechanism under both static and dynamic conditions. A bias-ply tyre and a radial-ply tyre, each of 13.6x28 sizes were selected under this study in soft
2 soil conditions. The soil cone index was maintained between 0.6 to 0.8 N/mm . Under the static condition, the data show that the maximum load which could be added was 4.75 kN and the corresponding retracted load at the same pressure was 4.69 kN. There was
only 3% difference in ring transducer and pan balance reading under dynamic condition, an average of 1.02% to 6.26% difference in load during the entire length of travel w.r.t initial load was found for both bias and radial-ply tyre under different pull up to 20% slip.
There was no significant difference was found between initial vertical load and average vertical load during travel as the p-value (calculated probability) was found 0.30 (> 0.05) using t-test available in SAS 9.3.
Efficient utilization of tractor include maximizing fuel economy as well as maximizing traction potential with
optimum stability. The present study was taken up to develop an instrumented tractor for conducting haulage performance tests of a 39 kW PTO power of tractor to its dynamic behavior. Dynamic behaviour deals with safety, stability and mobility of tractor in different terrain conditions. The haulage performance parameters include draft, vertical force and stability. The tractor was instrumented with coupling mouth consisted two load cells of 5 ton capacity at single hitch point. The wheel reactions under dynamic condition were
calculated to evaluate the stability index of tractor. Based on the desire stability index of 20 %, the maximum safe haulage capacity of test tractor was found to be 15000 kg on plane surface. However on 4 degree uphill and 4 degree downhill slopes the loading capacity was reduced to 13000 kg and 14000 kg.
Mechanization of agriculture having being the only way to address shortage of agricultural labour, has been adopted
in few cultivation operations of garlic, one of the most important crop spices in India. Attempts to mechanize planting and harvesting operation in garlic have led to the development of farm machinery prototypes in different parts of India. This paper aims to present an
overview of the present status and avenues of further mechanizing the cultivation of garlic in India.
Cucumber producers are looking for new cultivation practices to harvest best quality with higher yield and for off
season cucumber production. So, protected cultivation is an alternative for them, widely selected by most of farmers and especially in
Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Since, polyhouse production requires huge investment, time, labour and energy input. Therefore, study is needed to assess energy estimation in polyhouse cultivation and their adoptability and suitability to farmers to meet their
economical status. The study was conducted to estimate source wise and operation wise energy inputs at different condition of cucumber cultivation in Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh in polyhouse and open field cultivation levels and compare them with the
help of different energy indices. The study was carried out in the region by door to door survey and data were collected. Operation wise total energy input for both the system was 28626 and 69234 MJ/ha for open land and polyhouse respectively. Source wise the total energy input for polyhouse was 88085 MJ/ha and for open field it was 48299 MJ/ha. Energy ratio for polyhouse cucumber was 0.41
and for open land it was 0.25. Energy productivity for open land and polyhouse was 0.32 kg/MJ and 0.52 kg/MJ respectively. Specific
energy for open land and polyhouse was 3.1MJ/Kg and 1.9 MJ/Kg for polyhouse. The results also indicated that in both production systems non- renewable source of energy was used predominantly compare to renewable energy sources. Non-renewable energy
input for polyhouse cucumber was 89.8% and 92.5% for open-field cucumber of the total energy. The result indicated that energy wise open field cultivation of cucumber is not efficient due to very low output- input ratio of energy.
The color is an influential parameter for deciding the quality of a product but it gets severely affected by heat
treatment. While dehydration, the product is exposed to heat resulting in discoloration of the product. Drying of the liquids and purees can be done using a different kind of equipment viz. convective tray dryer, drum dryer, freeze dryer, and spray dryer. Due to different
limitations in these drying methods, researchers have been continuously working to explore new innovative methods of drying that may help in reducing product quality losses due to direct heat application. Refractive window drying is one such technique that gained a lot of attention in recent years, owing to the numerous benefits it claims. The basic aim of this study was to explore the benefits of using refractive window drying for maintaining the color of the dried product.
Ultra wide band (UWB) microstrip filtennas exhibiting filtering characteristics of antenna along with overall size reduction of radio frequency (RF) front end wireless communication system have been proposed because of huge bandwidth. Size compactness of filtennas with reasonable characteristics is necessary in modern wireless communication system. Miniaturization is achieved by embedding different components in a single module or develop a system with having multitasking capability. Filtenna or
filtering antenna is such a kind of approach in which there exists both simultaneous radiation and filtering characteristics in desired
band. Different techniques like filter synthesis design approach, co-design method, insert filter in feedline of antenna etc. are used by researcher to integrate antenna and filter. This paper reviews the state of art for UWB filtennas with detailed discussion about UWB antennas and filters along with integration techniques to achieve Filtenna module.
Genetic improvement of animals for production traits especially the milk yield has always been a topic of concern for researchers all over the world. The concept of analyzing 305 days milk yield has now become obsolete. Developed countries had already started using test day (TD) model in their regular breeding program however in developing countries it is still an emerging concept and therefore extends further opportunities in areas of newer researches. The data of animal breeding can be analyzed by several analyzing methods like the repeatability model, the multiple trait model and the most recent random regression model (RRM).
Random regression model is generally used for the analyzing longitudinal data that can be measured several times on trajectory of an individual. RRM allows drawing a personalized lactation curve for each cow with fixed regression explaining the general shape of
lactation curve for all animals belonging to the same sub class and random regression describing the deviation which allows each cow to have differently shaped lactation curve and account for random genetic and permanent environmental effects. The article tries to gather all the information related to the past researches and future prospect of random regression model in genetic evaluation of cattle.